The pictorial scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence (PMSC)

Figure 1- Boy bike riding poor
Figure 1- Boy bike riding poor
Figure 3 - Girl overhand throw competent
Figure 3 - Girl overhand throw competent
Figure 2- Boy bike riding competent
Figure 2- Boy bike riding competent
Figure 4 - Girl overhand throw poor
Figure 4 - Girl overhand throw poor

The pictorial scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence (PMSC) was modelled in terms of the picture and response format on The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children (Harter & Pike, 1983) Ages 4 to 7.

The items in the PMSC were initially matched to the 12 items in the Test of Gross Motor Development - 2nd Edition (Ulrich; 2000). These items include six for each subtest: Locomotor: run, gallop, hop, leap, horizontal jump, slide and Object Control: striking a stationary ball, stationary dribble, kick, catch, overhand throw, and underhand roll.

Lisa Barnett, PhD

Associate Professor, Deakin University

lisa.barnett@deakin.edu.au

This version of the PMSC was initially assessed for reliability and face validity in Australian children.

  • Children from Australia: Barnett, L. M., Ridgers, N. D., Zask, A., & Salmon, J. (2015). Face validity and reliability of a pictorial instrument for assessing fundamental movement skill perceived competence in young children. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 18(1), 98-102. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2013.12.004

Please contact A/Professor Lisa Barnett (Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition, Deakin University, Australia) for English versions of the PMSC.

This version of the PMSC now has reliability and/or validity papers from the following countries:

Children from Australia and America: Barnett, L. M., Robinson, L. E., Webster, E. K., & Ridgers, N. D. (2015). Reliability of the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence in 2 Diverse Samples of Young Children. J Phys Act Health, 12(8), 1045-1051. doi: 10.1123/jpah.2014-0141

Vitor Lopes 

vplopes@ipb.pt

Children from Portugal: Lopes, V. P., Barnett, L. M., Saraiva, L., Goncalves, C., Bowe, S. J., Abbott, G., et al. (2016). Validity and reliability of a pictorial instrument for assessing perceived motor competence in Portuguese children. Child Care Health Dev, 42(5), 666-674. doi: 10.1111/cch.12359

The pictorial scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence (PMSC) and play skills

Six additional active play items were then added and this version (the 12 TGMD-2 skills and six extra skills) was first validated in Australian children.

Children from Australia: Barnett, L. M., Vazou, S., Abbott, G., Bowe, S. J., Robinson, L. E., Ridgers, N. D., et al. (2016). Construct validity of the pictorial scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence. [Article]. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 22, 294-302. doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2015.09.002

Preschool children from Australia: J Moulton, C Leung, ND Ridgers, G Pepin, LM Barnett. Measuring movement skill perceptions in preschool children: a face validity and reliability study. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal. [In press]

This version of the PMSC has reliability and/or validity papers from the following countries:

Children from Brazil: Valentini, N., Barnett, L., Bandeira, P. F., Nobre, G. C., Zanell, L. W., & Sartori, R. F. (2017). The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence: Determining Content and Construct Validity for Brazilian Children. Journal of Motor Learning and Development, 1-26. doi: 10.1123/jmld.2016-0043

Isaac Estevan

isaac.estevan@uv.es

Children from Spain: Estevan, I., Molina-García, J., Abbott, G., Bowe, S., Castillo, I., & Barnett, L. Evidence of Reliability and Validity for the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence in Spanish Children. Journal of Motor Learning and Development, 0(0), 1-27. doi: 10.1123/jmld.2016-0065

The pictorial scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence (PMSC) - updated

A subsequent version was developed that matched the 13 items in the TGMD version 3. The object control subtest was renamed ball skills, with seven skills instead of six (i.e., strike with two hands, strike with one hand, stationary dribble, catch, kick, overhand throw, and underhand throw). In the locomotor subtest, the six skills are now: run, gallop, skip, hop, slide, and horizontal jump. In this version of the TGMD the leap and underhand roll skills were eliminated, and the skip, one-hand forehand strike and underhand throw were added, bringing the total skill count up to thirteen, from the previous twelve.

This version of the PMSC has reliability and/or validity papers from the following countries:

Children from Australia:

Johnson, T. M., Ridgers, N. D., Hulteen, R. M., Mellecker, R. R., & Barnett, L. M. (2016). “Does playing a sports active video game improve young children's ball skill competence?” Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 19(5), 432-436. doi: 10.1016/j.jsams.2015.05.002

Yucui Diao (Jane)

diaoyucui4321@126.com

Children from China: Diao, Y., Barnett, L., Estevan, I., Dong, C., & Li, J. Validity and Reliability of a Pictorial Instrument for Assessing Fundamental Movement Skill Perceived Competence in Chinese Children. Journal of Motor Learning and Development, 0(0), 1-27. doi: 10.1123/jmld.2016-0082

Fotini Venetsanou

fvenetsanou@phed.uoa.gr

Children from Greece: "Validity and reliability of the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence for young Greek children" Journal of Motor Learning and Development. In press. [Email Fotini for information]

The pictorial scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence (PMSC) - App

Arja Sääkslahti 

arja.saakslahti@jyu.fi

An android app has since been developed and translated into Finnish – see Professor Arja Saakslahti

“App to assess Perceived Movement Skill Competence in children” Journal of Motor Learning and Development. In press. Contact Lisa Barnett, Email: lisa.barnett@deakin.edu.au

The pictorial scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence (PMSC) - Proxy report

The PMSC was modified to be completed as a written proxy report. The following articles include the testing of this instrument in Australian children and parents.

  • Liong, G. H. E., Ridgers, N. D., & Barnett, L. M. (2015). “Associations between Skill Perceptions and Young Children's Actual Fundamental Movement Skills”. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 120(2), 591-603. doi: 10.2466/10.25.PMS.120v18x2
  • S Maher, N Schott, N Lander, T Hinkley, LM Barnett, A comparison of parent report and actual motor competence in young children. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal. [In press].

This version has since been used in Spain for parent and teacher report:

  • Estevan, I., Molina-García, J., Bowe, S., Alvarez, O., Castillo, I., & Barnett, L. M. (2018). Who can best report on children’s motor competence: parents, teachers, or the children themselves? Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 34, 1-9.   https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2017.09.002

This version has also been used for adolescents to self-report.

  • Details coming soon

The papers below that use a version of the PMSC may be of interest

  • Afthentopoulou, A.-E., Venetsanou, F., Zounhia, A., & Petrogiannis, K. (2018). Gender differences in perceived movement competence in childhood. European Psychomotricity Journal, 10(1), 16-26.
  • Barnett, L., Lubans, D., Salmon, J., Timperio, A., & Ridgers, N. D. “What is the Contribution of Actual Motor Skill, Fitness, and Physical Activity to Children’s Self-Perception of Motor Competence?” Journal of Motor Learning and Development, 0(0), 1-21. doi: 10.1123/jmld.2016-0076
  • Barnett, L. M., Ridgers, N. D., Hesketh, K., & Salmon, J. (2017). “Setting them up for lifetime activity: Play competence perceptions and physical activity in young children”. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 20(9), 856-860. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2017.03.003
  • Barnett, L. M., Ridgers, N. D., & Salmon, J. (2015). “Associations between young children's perceived and actual ball skill competence and physical activity”. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 18(2), 167-171. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2014.03.001
  • Barnett, L. M., Salmon, J., & Hesketh, K. D. (2016). “More active pre-school children have better motor competence at school starting age: an observational cohort study”. BMC Public Health, 16(1), 1068. doi: 10.1186/s12889-016-3742-1
  • Brian, A., Bardid, F., Barnett, L., Deconinck, F., Lenoir, M., & Goodway, J. “Actual and Perceived Motor Competence Levels of Belgian and US Preschool Children”. Journal of Motor Learning and Development, 0(0), 1-29. doi: 10.1123/jmld.2016-0071
  • Clark, C.C.T., Moran, J., Drury, B., Venetsanou, F., & Fernandes, J.F.T. (2018). Actual vs. perceived motor competence in children (8-10 years): An issue of non-veridicality. Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology, 3, 20, doi:10.3390/jfmk3020020
  • MJ Duncan, V Jones, W O'Brien, LM Barnett, ELJ Eyre. Self-Perceived and Actual Motor Competence in Young British Children. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 2018; 125: 251-64. [In press].
  • Edwards, J., Jeffrey, S., May, T., Rinehart, N. J., & Barnett, L. M. (2017). Does playing a sports active video game improve object control skills of children with autism spectrum disorder? Journal of Sport and Health Science, 6(1), 17-24. doi: 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.09.004
  • Feitoza, A. H. P., Henrique, R. d. S., Barnett, L., Re, A., Lopes, V. P., Webster, E. K., et al. Perceived Motor Competence in Childhood: Comparative Study Among Countries. Journal of Motor Learning and Development, 0(0), 1-22. doi: 10.1123/jmld.2016-0079
  • Masci, I., Schmidt, M., Marchetti, R., Vannozzi, G., & Pesce, C. (2017). “When Children’s Perceived and Actual Motor Competence Mismatch: Sport Participation and Gender Differences.” Journal of Motor Learning and Development, 1-33. doi: 10.1123/jmld.2016-0081
  • T May, L Barnett, T Hinkley, J McGillivray, H Skouteris, D Stephens, D., et al. ‘We’re Doing AFL Auskick As Well’: Experiences of an Adapted Football Program for Children With Autism. Journal of Motor Learning and Development, 0(0), 1-29. doi: 10.1123/jmld.2016-0055 [In press].
  • Morgan, P. J., Young, M. D., Barnes, A. T., Eather, N., Pollock, E. R., & Lubans, D. R. (2018). Engaging Fathers to Increase Physical Activity in Girls: The “Dads And Daughters Exercising and Empowered” (DADEE) Randomized Controlled Trial. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, kay015-kay015. doi: 10.1093/abm/kay015
  • Slykerman, S., Ridgers, N. D., Stevenson, C., & Barnett, L. M. (2016). “How important is young children's actual and perceived movement skill competence to their physical activity?” Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 19(6), 488-492. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2015.07.002
  • Toovey, R., Harvey, A.R., McGinley, J.L., Lee, K.J., Shih, S.T.F., & Spittle, A.J. (2018). Bike skills training for children with cerebral palsy: Protocol for a randomised controlled trial. BMJ Open, 8, doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2017-019898

Please note that all use needs to be cited according to the following:

Use of the ‘Perceived Movement Skill Competence for Young Children’ in any form (i.e. through the printed booklet or App version, and whether one skill item or all skill items are used), should be accompanied by the following acknowledgement. "The pictorial scale of ‘Perceived Movement Skill Competence for Young Children’ was developed by Lisa M Barnett, Nicola Ridgers, Avigdor Zask and Jo Salmon at Deakin University (Citation: Lisa M. Barnett, Nicola D. Ridgers, Avigdor Zask, and Jo Salmon, 'Face Validity and Reliability of a Pictorial Instrument for Assessing Fundamental Movement Skill Perceived Competence in Young Children', Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 18 (2015), 98-102). The concept of the ‘Perceived Movement Skill Competence for Young Children’ and item wording was originally taken from the ‘Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Acceptance for Young Children’ Susan Harter and Robin G. Pike 1980." Please also note that the images cannot be used for any other purpose.